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Change at this level is much more rapid than that of the environment; Braudel looks at two or three centuries in order to spot a particular pattern, such as the rise and fall of various aristocracies. This is the history of individuals with names.


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This, for Braudel, is the time of surfaces and deceptive effects. Braudel's Mediterranean is centered on the sea, but just as important, it is also the desert and the mountains. The desert creates a nomadic form of social organization where the whole community moves; mountain life is sedentary. Transhumance — that is, the movement from the mountain to the plain, or vice versa in a given season — is also a persistent part of Mediterranean existence. It was widely admired, but most historians did not try to replicate it and instead focused on their specialized monographs.

The book firmly launched the study of the Mediterranean and dramatically raised the worldwide profile of the Annales School.

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The first volume was published in , and was translated to English in The last of the three-volume work appeared in Like all Braudel's major works, the book mixed traditional economic material with thick description of the social impact of economic events on various facets of everyday life, including food , fashion , and other social customs. The third volume, subtitled "The Perspective of the World", was strongly influenced by the work of German scholars like Werner Sombart. In this volume, Braudel traced the impact of the centers of Western capitalism on the rest of the world.

Braudel wrote the series both as a way of explanation for the modern way and partly as a refutation of the Marxist view of history. Braudel discussed the idea of long-term cycles in the capitalist economy that he saw developing in Europe in the 12th century. Particular cities, and later nation-states, follow each other sequentially as centers of these cycles: Venice and Genoa in the 13th through the 15th centuries — ; Antwerp in the 16th century — ; Amsterdam in the 16th through 18th centuries — ; and London and England in the 18th and 19th centuries — He used the word "structures" to denote a variety of social structures , such as organized behaviours, attitudes, and conventions, as well as physical structures and infrastructures.

He argued that the structures established in Europe during the Middle Ages contributed to the successes of present-day European-based cultures. He attributed much of this to the long-standing independence of city-states, which, though later subjugated by larger geographic states, were not always completely suppressed—probably for reasons of utility. Braudel argued that capitalists have typically been monopolists and not, as is usually assumed, entrepreneurs operating in competitive markets.

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He argued that capitalists did not specialize and did not use free markets, thus diverging from both liberal Adam Smith and Marxian interpretations. In Braudel's view, the state in capitalist countries has served as a guarantor of monopolists rather than a protector of competition, as it is usually portrayed.

He asserted that capitalists have had power and cunning on their side as they have arrayed themselves against the majority of the population. An agrarian structure is a long-term structure in the Braudelian understanding of the concept.

Mafia, langage, identité (Harmattan Italia) (French Edition) by Salvatore Di Piazza PDF

Braudel argued that France was the product not of its politics or economics but rather of its geography and culture, a thesis Braudel explored in a wide-ranging book that saw the bourg and the patois: historie totale integrated into a broad sweep of both the place and the time. Upheavals in institutions or the superstructure of social life were of little significance, for history, they argued, lies beyond the reach of conscious actors, especially the will of revolutionaries. They rejected the Marxist idea that history should be used as a tool to foment and foster revolutions.

Braudel's structures, both mental and environmental, determine the long-term course of events by constraining actions on, and by, humans over a duration long enough that they are beyond the consciousness of the actors involved.


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In a poll by History Today magazine, Fernand Braudel was picked as the most important historian of the previous 60 years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


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